Farsi English 

 

1)What is mineral exploration?

2)common exploration steps.

3)kagco exploration steps.

 

 

1)What is mineral exploration?

 

Mineral exploration is the process of finding ores (commercially viable concentrations of minerals) to mine. Mineral exploration is a much more intensive, organized and professional form of mineral prospecting and, though it frequently uses the services of prospecting, the process of mineral exploration on the whole is much more involved.

The Most Questions in Mining Geology and Exploration

 

1- How much metal is available?

2- What is a mineral? What is ore?

3- How do ore deposits form?

4- Mining exploration methods

5- Role of exploration in mining

 

Economically Important Metal Concentrations in Earth's Crust

 

What is a mineral?

A solid naturally-occurring compound having a definite chemical composition Examples:

quartz - SiO2 (an oxide)

hematite - Fe2O3 (another oxide)

covelite - CuS (a sulphide)

 

What is an ore deposit?

An occurrence of minerals or metals in sufficiently high concentration to be profitable to mine and process using current technology and under current economic conditions.

 

What is ore grade?

Ore grade is the concentration of economic mineral or metal in an ore deposit.

Economically Important Metals Typical Grades of Ore Deposits

 

You can find many more information about exploration and its topics in the following :

 

 

Reference :

en.wikipedia.org

2)common exploration steps :

 

 

The Mineral Exploration Cycle (MEC)

1- Program Design

2- Reconnaissance Exploration

3- Detailed Exploration

4- Prospect Evaluation

5- Final Feasibility and Pre-Production

 

Practical Application Of Modern Exploration Techniques

1- Program Design

2- Reconnaissance Exploration

3- Detailed Exploration

4- Prospect Evaluation

 

Useful books:

Geological Methods in Mineral Exploration and Mining (By Roger Marjoribanks)

Guide to mineral exploration metallic minerals (By Deidre Lewis (CSA Group Ltd.))

Introduction to mineral exploration (By Charles J.Moon, Michael K.G.Whately)

3)kagco. exploration steps :

 

KAGCo. Services:

1- Remote sensing

2- Geological mapping

3- Geophysical surveys

4- Geochemical surveys

5- Bulk sampling

6- Drilling (core or destructive)

 

1- Remote sensing

The term "remote sensing" generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, including on the surface and in the atmosphere and oceans, based on propagated signals (e.g. electromagnetic radiation). It may be split into "active" remote sensing (i.e., when a signal is emitted by a satellite or aircraft and its reflection by the object is detected by the sensor) and "passive" remote sensing (i.e., when the reflection of sunlight is detected by the sensor).

KAGCo. performs spectral analysis to classify lithology and facies from hyperspectral cubes acquired from sensors on satellite , and combines such analysis with ancillary information. We use this information to update geological maps and highlight potential high concentrations of minerals.

KAGCo. extracts data of reflection and absorption properties of soils, rock and vegetation in order to obtain actual surface lithologies and identify clays, oxides and soils from satellite images. The detected superficial composites are often related to underground deposits of copper, gold or other metals.

The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.

By mapping large areas, ground exploration and test drillings can be planned in a more effective way. In combination with the topography of the area, costs, exploitation and transport possibilities can be optimally planned.

Topographic maps for mining

Mining activity planning requires up-to-date topographic information for change monitoring and rapid situation assessment.

KAGCo. provides topographic maps for mining retrieved from high-resolution satellite images.

 

2- Geological mapping

A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Bedding planes and structural features such as faults, folds, foliations, and lineations are shown with strike and dip or trend and plunge symbols which give these features' three-dimensional orientations.

Geologic mapping involves plotting the location and attitude of the various rock units, faults, and folds on a base map. Geologic maps are used to investigate geologic hazards, mineral resources, groundwater aquifers, and just plain science.

When we are mapping the bedrock we determine the rocks distribution, their mineralogical composition, genesis and age (relative and age) as well as any structures present. Certain projects research the bedrock's technical properties to determine the different rock type's use as building materials.

KAGCo. provides cost-effective geological mapping and modeling to mining, hydrocarbon and engineering companies. In a world of increasing specialization, where map-making skills are disappearing, we believe that making an objective map has also become a specialist.

We offer a mapping service backed up by geologists with considerable experience. Increasingly, we contribute to geological and resource models by integrating mapping and core logging into sophisticated 2D & 3D models. These models develop by integrating careful surface and underground observations with drill data. Structurally complex ore deposits, modeled using MapInfo-Discover 3D, are a specialty.

KAGCo. maps and models provide a solid foundation for exploration, regardless of whether the properties are grassroots or relatively advanced. A well-made geological map, when combined with surface geochemistry, geophysics or seismic, guides drilling and ultimately saves exploration money. Likewise, engineering projects will benefit from maps of superficial deposits and geological hazards, such as compressible soils, abandoned mine workings and landslips.

 

3- Geophysical surveys

Geophysical surveys have been used around the world for more than five decades. Geophysical surveys are an important part of mapping bedrock, soil and groundwater. These surveys determine characteristics of the Earth's subsurface by measuring the physical differences between rock types or physical discontinuities without seeing them directly by digging, drilling or tunneling. The goal of geophysical surveys is to produce maps or models that indicate the earth's geography, stratigraphy, rock distribution and geological structure delineation.

KAGCo. enables you to manage your project risks by providing you with state-of-the-art data acquisition, consulting services, geological hazards risk assessment and mitigation. In regions of the world with geotechnical, environmental and climatic complexities we deliver a professional service by combining our in-house geological and geophysical surveying capabilities with our experienced professionals.

 

4- Geochemical surveys

KAGCo. geochemical mapping researches the soils natural levels of metals and other important elements. The information tell us more about, for example; areas with gold, where there is a lack of important elements such as phosphorus and magnesium or risk of too high levels of elements like arsenic, cadmium etc..

 

5- Bulk sampling

Bulk sampling, the costly process of taking very large samples, is part of the general procedure for the exploration and evaluation of a mineral deposit.

Often the bulk sample will be a composite of material from development drifts and raises. Ideally, drift rounds or other portions should be selected from geological mapping and prior sampling, handled separately, and should be stored temporarily on a pad for sampling if not directly processed. The bulk sample will consist of these components and will take into account the geological continuities. The appropriateness of the bulk sample will be related to its source, to the variability of the deposit, to the deposit morphology, and to anticipated problems.

The final objective is to obtain the quantitative information required for the quantitative evaluation of the deposit in a formal feasibility study; the objective is a production decision that leads to a profitable operation.

KAGCo. provides a comprehensive introduction to the topic, including the application of bulk sampling in a project exploration / evaluation context, the nugget effect and other statistical issues, planning a bulk sampling program, grade verification and metallurgical testing.

 

6- Drilling (core or destructive)

A drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth sub-surface. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and are called augers. Drilling rigs can sample sub-surface mineral deposits, test rock, soil and groundwater physical properties, and also can be used to install sub-surface fabrications, such as underground utilities, instrumentation, tunnels or wells.

Small to medium-sized drilling rigs are mobile, such as those used in mineral exploration drilling, blast-hole, water wells and environmental investigations.

In the drilling industry, everyone knows that time is money. KAGCo. appreciates that equation - and we design small to medium-sized drilling programs that not only increase recoveries, but also lower costs by minimizing nonproductive time, boosting production rates and requiring smaller expenditures of capital. 

Which minerals kagco. can explore?

we can explore many material and metal such as :

base metals
copper
zinc
lead
more nickel
precious metals
silver
gold
platinum
more rhodium
rare elements
scandium
yttrium
lanthanum
more tantalum
jewelry
amber
quartz
jade
more agate
marble
dolomite
calcite
limestone
more
others
silica
iron
titanium
more vanadium